Water is becoming more and more of a scarce resource. This can lead to competing interests and competition over the control of water resources. It can also lead to conflicts between nations.

Rivers and other water resources crossing international borders can lead to hydropolitics. Two or more countries containing rivers obviously have in-stream use for example. The upstream country abstracts water, uses it, and often emits used water in the stream. The downstream country does the same thing. This can lead to conflicts as it relates to limited water resources and the pollution of water resources.
Hydropolitics can be international such as the case of the Euphrates river use between Turkey (the upstream country), and Syria and Iraq (the downstream countries). Watch the video below for a more current case study.
Hydropolitics can also occur between regions or different stakeholders within a country. In the western United States, there have been conflicts over water resources between ranchers and the Native Americans, between urban dwellers in Denver and farmers in the rural parts of the state of Colorado, and between the city of Los Angeles and the neighboring state of Arizona over Colorado river water. In the state of California itself, there have been conflicts between northern California which has the water resources but fewer people and southern California which is a very dry area but has many people and as a result more political power.

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Go over the case study on the Colorado river where these issues will be highlighted.

Freshwater conflicts: Case Study on the Colorado River