Global Interactions

"The study of global interactions in this syllabus has a broader perspective than a more conventional study of globalization that emphasizes a linear process involving the domination and the imposition of western culture on the world. In the contest of this syllabus, global interaction suggest a two-way and complex process whereby cultural traits and commodities may be adopted, adapted or resisted by societies. The process is neither inevitable nor universal.

The HL extension theme focuses on the global interactions, flows and exchanges arising from the disparities that exist between places. It presents important and contestable geographic issues of changed in space and time for the HL student to question. This part of the syllabus is divided into seven topics relating to global interactions as outlined in the following table. Each topic has a conceptual base that is developed through the content."
(Geography Syllabus, IBO 2010)
  1. Measuring global interactions
  2. Changing space - the shrinking world
  3. Economic interactions and flows
  4. Environmental change
  5. Sociocultural exchanges
  6. Political outcomes
  7. Global interactions at the local level


Civil society
Any organization or movement that works in the are between the household, the private sector and the state to negotiate matters of public concern. Civil societies include non-governmental organizations (NGOs), community groups, trade unions, academic institutions and faith-based organizations.
Core and periphery
The concept of a developed core surrounded by an undeveloped periphery. The concept can be applied at various scales.
Cultural imperialism
The practice of promoting the culture/language of one nation in another. It is usually the case that the former is a large, economically or militarily powerful nation and the latter is a smaller, less affluent one.
Food Miles
A measure of the distance food travels from its source to the consumer. This can be given either in units of actual distance or of energy consumed during transport.
"The growing interdependence of countries worldwide through the increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services and of international capital flows, and through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology" (source: IMF).
Global indices
The AT Kaerney Foreign Policy index measures twelve variables, which are subdivided into four "baskets": economic integration, personal contact, technological connectivity and political engagement. nations are ranked according to a calculated globalization index.
The KOF index measures three main dimensions of globalization: economic, political and social, and nations are ranked accordingly. It is designed by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology on a yearly basis.
A term that was invented to emphasize that the globalization of a product is more likely to succeed when the product or service is adapted specifically to each locality or culture on which it is marketed. The increasing presence of McDonald's restaurants worldwide is and example of globalization, while changes made to the menus of the restaurant chain, an an attempt to appeal to local tastes, are an example of glocialization.
Gross National Income (now used in preference to gross national product - GNP). The total value of goods and services produced within a country together with the balance of income and payments from or to other countries.
The concept of taking internal company functions and paying an outside firm to handle them. Outsourcing is done to save money, improve quality or free company resources for other activities.
Time-space convergence
The reduction in the time taken to travel between two placed due to improvements in transportation or communication technology.
Transnational corporation (TNC)
A firm that owns or controls productive operations in more than one country though foreign direct investment.
(Geography Syllabus, IBO 2010)